THE NEW AUDITOR'S REPORT新審計報告

Relevant to F8 and P7

在2015年之后,國際審計委員會(IAASB),對有關審計報告的審計準則進行了修改和增加,包括ISA570持續經營和其他一些國際審計準則(ISA)。

參加F8和P7考試的考生需要對審計報告相關的審計準則有深入的理解,這些修改之后的和新增的審計準則將加入到2016年9月之后的考試內容。

考生需注意:修改之后的審計報告發生了重大的變化。

這篇文章的內容主要包括新準則ISA 701 CommunicatingKey Audit Matters in the Independent Auditor’s Report的要求,ISA701和其他審計報告相關準則(ISA 705 and 706)的關系,以及修改之后的ISA 570 Going concern的一系列新要求。

針對這些變化,對考生提出了以下這些要求:

描述審計報告中的元素

根據案例給出恰當的審計意見

理解什么情況下需要有“Emphasis of Matter or Other Matter paragraph”

判斷哪些情況下,審計報告中需要包含Key Audit Matters(KAM)

在F8和P7考試中,考生不需要去起草一份審計師的報告,但會要求考生解釋為什么給出unmodified opinion,或modified opinion,或為什么要有Emphasis of Matter paragraph。

F8考生需對revised ISA 700,Forming an Opinion and Reporting onFinancial Statements有深入的理解,可以識別和描述審計報告中的元素。

P7考生需學會判斷一筆交易或者一系列交易或者事項是否是關鍵審計事項(Key Audit Matters)

考試中也會給出一個審計報告中的一部分內容,讓考生去評價是否給出了恰當的審計報告。因此針對考綱中這部分相關內容,考生必須要有深入的理解,這部分內容確實有一定挑戰性。

KEY AUDIT MATTERS(KAM)(新加入的內容)

2015年1月,IAASB issuedISA 701,Communicating Key Audit Matters in the Independent Auditor’s Report.要求所有上市公司遵循該準則。

ISA 701要求審計師:

判斷哪些事項是Key Audit Matters

在審計報告中溝通KAM

關鍵審計事項定義:

關鍵審計事項(KAM)是審計師根據職業判斷,認為對本期財務報表審計最為重要的事項。關鍵審計事項需向治理層溝通。

DETERMINATION OF KAM

ISA 701準則第八段中,關鍵審計事項的定義是那些需要和治理層溝通的事項。與治理層討論之后,審計師進行評估和判斷,在審計過程中需要特別注意的事項。

以下是三點判定標準:

依據ISA 315(Revised),Identifying and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement throughUnderstanding the Entity and Its Environment.

評估出的容易出現重大錯報的地方或識別出的重大風險

財務報表中涉及重大管理層判斷(可能包括具有高度不確定性的會計估計)的領域

本期發生的重大交易或事項對審計的影響

審計師必須確定哪些事項對財務報表的影響是最重大的,這些將被視為KAM。

COMMUNICATING KAM

審計師判定的KAM,必須確保在審計報告中恰當地描述每個事項,包括:

為什么被判定為KAM

該事項在審計中是如何應對的

REPORTING IN LINE WITH ISA 570,GOING CONCERN

考試中可能會要求考生識別出一個公司不能持續經營的跡象,或者給出一個scenario,要求考生給出適當的審計意見??赡軙霈F這種情況:根據題目的描述,考生給出的審計意見是持續經營具有重大不確定性,董事們應當作出適當的披露,對于這種情況,新準則提出了新的要求。

修改之前的ISA 570,GoingConcern要求:

如果審計師的結論是持續經營假設是恰當的,但是存在重大不確定性,那么需要在財務報表中做到充分披露,在審計報告中緊接著意見段,需加入“Emphasis of Matter paragraph”參照財務報表中的相關披露進行說明。即使存在重大不確定性,只要做到了充分披露,審計師需強調審計意見還是unmodified opinion。

針對這種情況,修改之后的ISA 570(Revised),Going Concern發生了變化:

1、審計師依然給出unmodifiedopinion,Emphasis of Matter paragraph已經不需要了,但是要在審計報告中加入一部分‘Material Uncertainty Related to Going Concern’,這部分內容包括:

關注財務報表中對于重大不確定性的披露

聲明針對持續經營的重大不確定性,審計師的意見仍然是unmodified opinion。

2、‘MaterialUncertainty Related to Going Concern’這部分內容是在Basis for Opinion paragraph之后,并且在KAM paragraph之前。

如果財務報表中沒有做到充分披露,依照ISA 705,審計師需修改審計意見。

與持續關注有關的問題可能被認為是關鍵的審計事項,因此需要在審計報告中進行溝通。如果審計師已經確定了對持續經驗的質疑,但沒有審計證據確認存在不確定性存在,這“close call”依照ISA 701,這種情況叫做“close call”,需要進行披露。這是因為當審計師給出沒有重大不確定性的結論時,他們可能會判定一個或多個和這個結論相關的事項是關鍵審計事項(KAM)。例如:持續的經營損失、借貸、融資去還債,或貸款協議違約等等。

總結:

如果確認存在重大不確定性,必須依照ISA570進行充分披露。

如果出現“close all”,被審計師判定為KAM,必須依照ISA 701進行充分披露。

Example–unmodified audit opinion but material uncertainty exists inrelation to going concern and the disclosures are adequate

Report on the Audit of the Financial Statements(extract)

Opinion

In our opinion,theaccompanying financial statements present fairly,in all material respects,thefinancial position of the Company as at 31 December 2015,and its financialperformance and its cash flows for the year then ended in accordance withInternational Financial Reporting Standards(IFRSs).

Basis for opinion

We conducted ouraudit in accordance with International Standards on Auditing(ISAs).Ourresponsibilities under those standards are further described in the Auditor’sResponsibilities for the Audit of the Financial Statements section of our report.We are independent of the Company in accordance with the ethical requirementsthat are relevant to our audit of the financial statements in Farland,and wehave fulfilled our other ethical responsibilities in accordance with theserequirements.We believe that the audit evidence we have obtained is sufficientand appropriate to provide a basis for our opinion.

Material uncertainty related to going concern

We draw attention toNote 6 in the financial statements,which indicates that the Company incurred anet loss of$125,000 during the year ended 31 December 2015 and,as of thatdate,the Company’s current liabilities exceeded its total assets by$106,000.As stated in Note 6,these events or conditions,along with other matters asset forth in Note 6,indicate that a material uncertainty exists that may castsignificant doubt on the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.Ouropinion is not modified in respect of this matter.

Key audit matters

Key audit matters arethose matters that,in our professional judgment,were of most significance inour audit of the financial statements of the current period.These matters wereaddressed in the context of our audit of the financial statements as a whole,and in forming our opinion thereon,and we do not provide a separate opinion onthese matters.In addition tothe matter described in the Material Uncertainty Related to Going Concernsection,we have determined the matters described below to be the key auditmatters to be communicated in our report.

[Include adescription of each key audit matter]

APPLICATION OF ISA 701 WHEN A QUALIFIED OR ADVERSE OPINION IS ISSUED

當審計師給出modifiedopinion時,修改后的ISA705(Revised)要求:

審計報告中包括Basis for Qualified/Adverse Opinion section。

當審計師給出qualified or adverse opinion時,審計報告中扔然要包括關鍵審計事項KAM section。

當審計師給出adverse opinion,意味著財務報表不是真實公允的呈報,錯報是重大且普遍的,這時審計師認為除了這些,沒有其他的重要審計事項(KAM)了,審計報告應如下所示:

Example–Qualified‘except for’opinion issued butno key audit matters

The audit ofTurquoise Industries Co has been completed and the auditor discovered amaterial amount of research expenditure which had been capitalised as anintangible asset in contravention of IAS 38 Intangible Assets.The financedirector refused to derecognise the research expenditure as an intangible assetand include it in profit or loss and the auditor therefore issued a qualified‘except for’opinion on the basis of disagreement with the entity’s accountingtreatment for research expenditure.

The auditor hasconcluded that there are no KAM which require to be communicated in the auditreport.The KAM section of the report will therefore be as follows:

Key audit matters

Except for the matter described in the Basis for Qualified Opinionsection,we have determined that there are no key audit matters to communicatein our report.

When the auditor hasexpressed an adverse opinion on the financial statements and communicates KAM,it is important that the descriptions of such KAM do not imply that thefinancial statements as a whole are more credible in light of the adverseopinion.

DISCLAIMER OF OPINION ISSUED

當審計師發表disclaimer opinion時,意味著審計師拒絕發表意見,這時審計報告中不應該包括KAM paragraph。

EMPHASIS OF MATTER AND OTHER MATTER PARAGRAPHS

修改后的ISA 706(Revised)仍然保留了Emphasis of Matter and Other Matter paragraphs,

IAASB認為在一些特定情況下:與Emphasis of Matter paragraph相比,KAM section可以提供更多的信息。

判定為KAM的事項,不能包含在Emphasis of Matter paragraph or an Other Matterparagraph。IAASB強調Emphasis of Matter paragraph不是KAM的替代品。

如果KAM被判斷為fundamental to users’understanding,那么審計師需要在KAM section具體說明它的重要性。

如果被審計師判斷為fundamental to users’understanding,但又不是KAM,那么需要包含在Emphasis ofMatter paragraph。

對于被審計師判斷為fundamental to users’understanding的事項,首先要判斷是否是KAM,如果是KMA,那么要在KAM paragraph詳細說明它的重要性,如果不是KAM,那么要包含在Emphasis of Matter paragraph

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CANDIDATES ATTEMPTING P7(INT)

P7的考生需要學會判斷哪些事項是KAM,學會討論審計報告中KAM的內容。

以下是一些典型的KAM舉例:

IMPAIRMENT TESTING ON GOODWILL(goodwill減值測試)

IFRS 3,BusinessCombinations requires goodwill to be tested for impairment at each reportingdate and the annual impairmenttest may be regarded as a KAM where the carrying amount of goodwill ismaterial.Impairment tests are inherently complex and judgmental and therefore management’s assessment process mayalso be a KAM.

EFFECTS OF NEW IFRSS(新會計準則的影響)

New accountingstandards may be introduced by the International Accounting Standards Board(such as IFRS 15,Revenue from Contracts with Customers)that will involve amaterial change of accounting treatment.For example,IFRS 15 requires theapplication of a new framework in respect of revenue recognition,and hence theimplementation of IFRS 15 may give rise to the new accounting requirements becoming a KAM as theywill impact on the reporting entity’s financial position and performance.

VALUATION OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS,AND OTHER ASSETS AND LIABILITIES ATFAIR VALUE(金融工具估值,其他資產和負債的公允價值)

Significant measurement uncertainties in some financial instruments(for example those for which quoted prices are notavailable)may give rise to the valuation of financial instruments becoming a KAM because suchvaluations would invariably rely on entity-developed models.This can alsoapply to other assets and liabilities,particularly those measured using fairvalue techniques which can be complex and subjective.

Please note that theexamples above are included for illustrative purposes and do not form anexhaustive list of all issues that could be identified as KAM.

CONCLUSION

為了給財務報表使用者提供更多更豐富的相關信息,IAASB對審計報告相關準則進行了顯著的修改。

F8考生需要有能力識別并描述審計報告中包含的基本要素。

不管是F8,還是P7考生都需要深入理解這些審計準則對于審計師的要求和責任,以及能夠判定unmodified/modifiedauditor’s report的格式和內容,以及恰當使用Emphasis of Matter orOther Matter paragraph。

另外,P7考生需要學會判定哪些事項是KAM,或者能夠對審計報告中的KAM section進行討論評估。

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